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CARS/TRUCKS/TRACTORS- Here lie major  questions about future capabilities regarding producing human  transport vehicles and machinery, even given a slowly declining  population.  Note: all business ventures referenced below involve  government subsidy, because the government subsidizes all of the  major banks.   CARS: all Soviet era manufacturing capability is  finished; an attempt is being made to modernize but buyers prefer  higher-quality foreign used cars from Europe and especially Japan.   Russia is relying on joint ventures with most of the big international  car manufacturers to bring in the majority of the capital and all of the  manufacturing technology required to serve future markets.  This  doesn’t affect poor people, since the car-owning middle class is  expected to grow in the future, though no one knows how much (or  really, if at all).  China is now the world’s  largest car manufacturer  and of course could force their way into the Russian market if  desired.  As mentioned earlier, there are many used cars from  Japan  but this import program was stopped because, officially,  Japanese  cars’ right-side steering wheel poses a safety risk---translation: the  government is trying to force people to buy domestically-  manufactured product. TRUCKS: Russia has been unable to meet  growing demand, through domestic manufacturing, for trucks and has no manufacturing capacity for large trailers.  So it is, like with cars,  importing used equipment from Europe, Asia, and also the United  States, while  joint venturing with foreign firms for production to meet  future demand.  Note:  these imported big rigs are heavier than old  Soviet trucks and are thus having a very negative long term effect on  roads, the majority of which aren’t designed to carry such weights,  constantly.   TRACTORS:  Almost all heavy equipment is currently  imported from Europe, China, and the U.S.A., and this trend isn’t  expected to change.  Historically, with imported equipment, the  pattern has to run-it-till-it-breaks and buy another, without  maintenance,  but that attitude is slowly changing.  BUSSES AND  TROLLEYS- All trolleys and some busses are manufactured  domestically, the latter being based on foreign designs (German) with some busses continuing to be recycled from Europe (Germany,  mostly) and Korea.  The farther from the population hub, the older the  product.   (*KEY*) NONE of Russia’s cities were designed for the  major use of automobiles.  The socialist intent was for the masses to  perpetually use public transport.  Now, even with only a small  percentage of the population using cars, major gridlock is the norm  everywhere---and there is no possible solution in site, even in the  Capitals of Moscow and St. Petersberg.  As might be guessed, this  same deficiency applies to intercity/interstate road facilities as well. 
              TRAINS-  Locomotives are aging but manufacturing needs will be  met inside of the country at any cost  because of Defense requirements.  The  same goes for most non-passenger rolling stock; over 80% of all freight traffic in  Russia is carried by rail.  Passenger cars in use today were all made in East  Germany and most still work well despite their age.  Future capacity when/if  required is planned to be met by Ukrainian-Russian joint venture.  The main  questions revolve around rails and ballasting, the lack of maintenance of which  often causes greatly reduced speeds and reduced stability---major Defense  concerns along with ever-increasing Asian commercial traffic on the Trans-  Siberian.   Note: The former Eastern European Bloc (less the former east  Germany) and Mongolia are stuck with this Soviet wide-gauge legacy, stripped  down further by Russian withdrawal post 1991.  TRAMS-all manufactured  domestically.  SPECIAL NOTE:  Russia contracted with German firms to  construct its first high-speed line between Moscow and St. Petersberg while  contracting with Libya to provide a similar service at the same time.                PLANES-  With the exception of the TU-154 (125 passengers) and  the IL-76  (heavy freighter only), and some Yaks, all Soviet-era  aircraft have  generally been grounded for age and safety reasons.  Like with trains, the  Former Eastern Bloc (excluding the former East Germany and Mongolia) plus  Iran and the Former Central Asian Autonomous Republics (primarily Kazakhstan  and Uzbekistan) are still using these aging vehicles with greater and greater  risk, as evidenced by the Polish Government’s recent loss of life near Smolensk.    Russia has no manufacturing capacity for low-passenger (30-50 passenger)   turbo-props and so these must be imported; few are necessary, mainly in the  numerous sparsely populated regions of Siberia.  Russia has imported mainly  used Boeing and Airbus planes for the 150-250 passenger categories, but these serve very few airports, because (*KEY*)  99% of the latter are only equipped  with Soviet air traffic and control systems---and these can’t be adapted to  Western planes.  The cost of retrofitting airports to comply with western systems  is beyond enormous.  So, the key to Russia’s domestic/short-haul international  aviation future is the new Sukhoi 100 (passenger), which is just coming into  production.  Designed under  a joint venture license with and with the majority  financing of 2 foreign firms, it will eventually replace all Soviet-era planes and  foreign 737’s/A 320’s as the population, the economy,  and thus demand keep  declining.  It was designed from the beginning to compete internationally with  the Brazilian Embraer and the Canadian Bomardier;  it will be certified for short  international routes to Europe.  Since it would be very hard to justify  the cost of  getting a brand new 100+ passenger aircraft internationally certified beyond  Europe without large orders extant, its range of sales will end there,  especially  considering concerns about long-term maintenance and parts availability---and  China’s projected joint ventures with Airbus.   So eventually, as with most foreign  investment situations, the foreign joint venture partners will be eliminated and  the Sukhoi 100 will be made by and for Russia, and the old airport guidance  systems will be spared.   The recent air crash in Yaroslavl will accelerate this  process, under the guise of a national emergency.   But for now, the domestic  manufacturing emphasis is on defense: fighter jets, primarily.  HELICOPTERS:   low weight (6 or fewer passengers) are imported.  Heavy-weight can be  manufactured domestically (Defense requirement) but importing is done as well.            BOATS-  Practically everything  is expected to be imported for civilian  use,  including some small vessels for Defense needs.  This is mainly because  there is no correlation between the needs of the population and the Navy.  The  defense emphasis is on providing a fleet of submarines which carry multiple-  head inter-continental ballistic  missiles  which, along with existing ground-  based nuclear capability, will alone command the world to respect Russia as a  super-power.